Glossary of Terms

Patency

Patency is the natural open and unblocked state of an artery, duct or tube in the body.

Annulus Fibrosus

the outer, fibrous, rubberband-like structure of the intervertebral disc.

Anomaly

an abnormality or irregularity in formation

Articulations

joints, as in the joining of bones or movable segments

Bulging Disc

same as herniated disc, slipped disc, ruptured disc - a condition in which the inner part of the intervertebral disc called the nucleus pulposus pushes through the outer containing fibers of the disc called the annulus fibrosus. This bulging of the inner nucleus into the annulus fibrosus can take two forms. If the nucleus is held within the annulus fibrosus, the process is termed a contained disc, and sometimes referred to as a disc protrusion or herniation. If the annulus fibrosus tears and allows the inner nucleus pulposus to escape through the annulus fibrosus it is called a non-contained disc herniation and often called a ruptured or fragmented disc.

Bursitis

inflammation of one or more bursae (small sacs) of synovial fluid in the body

Cauda equina

the lowest set of nerves off the spinal cord

Cauda equina syndrome

numbness of the perineum (genital area) or loss of bowel and bladder control. Because paralysis is eminent, surgery must be considered.

Cervical

the topmost segment of the spinal column upon with the head sits that allows flexion, extension, rotation and other movements of the head

Chiropractic

hands-on healing profession without drugs and invasive procedures

Congenital Anomalies

conditions whereby spinal structures did not fully develop or developed abnormally. You will be examined thoroughly. (examples: short pedicles, transitional segment, spondylolisthesis, tropism, incomplete vertebral development)

Cox Technic

a well researched, pain relieving, gentle, non-force chiropractic spinal manipulation and decompression adjustment to relieve pain, drop intradiscal pressures, open the spinal canal space, increase the disc's height and realign spinal segments. Read more about the Cox Technic.

Disc

the short term for intervertebral disc
 

Facet

the back (posterior) part of the vertebral body that attaches with ligaments to allow movement among the vertebrae

Facet joints

one pair faces up and one pair faces down

Flexion Distraction

Flexion distraction is the original term Dr. James Cox, Cox Technic Flexion Distraction and Decompression's founder, gave this technique in the late 1960's when he started using it in clinic, publishing its outcomes in journals and gathering data on its clinical outcomes. Please see Cox Technic for more information.

Galvanic current

direct-current (DC) electricity

Herniated Disc

same as slipped disc, bulging disc, ruptured disc - a condition in which the inner part of the intervertebral disc called the nucleus pulposus pushes through the outer containing fibers of the disc called the annulus fibrosus. This bulging of the inner nucleus into the annulus fibrosus can take two forms. If the nucleus is held within the annulus fibrosus, the process is termed a contained disc, and sometimes referred to as a disc protrusion or herniation. If the annulus fibrosus tears and allows the inner nucleus pulposus to escape through the annulus fibrosus it is called a non-contained disc herniation and often called a ruptured or fragmented disc.

Intervertebral disc

the spongy cushion between the bones/vertebrae of the spine that acts as a shock absorber for the spine

Ionophoresis

used with physiotherapy modality (galvanic electric current) to drive out inflammation and sedate nerves

Osteoarthritis

Osteoarthritis (also known as OA, degenerative arthritis, degenerative joint disease, osteoarthrosis) is a joint disease caused by cartilage loss in a joint. Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis, especially in older people. Osteoarthritis causes joint stiffness and pain due to the wearing down of the cartilage on bones that allows the bones to rub on each other. As time passes, the joint loses shape and may even develop bone spurs which causes even more pain.
 
Gentle, chiropractic care may open the joint spaces to alleviate the pain.

Cartilage

Relating to the spinal presence of cartilage, cartilage is the flexible, slippery, connective tissue that covers the ends of bones in a joint. Cartilage is also found in other parts of the body like the knee and ear, but in the spine healthy cartilage allows bones to glide over one another. Cartilage also absorbs energy from the shock of physical movement. The intervertebral disc is cartilage as well made mostly of water, 65% to 80% water content.

Osteochondrosis

Osteochondrosis is a family of orthopedic diseases in the joint. No one cause has yet been identified. Symptoms of osteochondrosis typically affect the older-than-30-years person, but occasionally younger teens-25 year olds are affected. A A spinal form of osteochondrosis is Scheuermann's Disease.
 
A clinical case report regarding the finding of osteochondrosis in a spinal pain patient who was treated with Cox Technic Flexion Distraction and Decempression is described.

Ligament Calcification

ossification (ligaments turn to bone) of the posterior longitudinal ligament

Lumbago

mild to severe low back pain that can be due to a simple strain or something more serious 

Lumbar

the lower segment of the spinal column allowing flexion, extension, side bending, and twisting of the spine

Migraine

severe headache accompanied by symptoms like light sensitivity, nausea, sound sensitivity

Myelopathy

severe compression of the spinal cord resulting in severe symptoms requiring co-management and possible cervical spine decompression surgery; spinal cord compression

Nucleus pulposus

The gel-like center of an intervertebral disc made up of 80% water. It is surrounded and contained by the annulus fibrosus which prevents this material from protruding outside the disc space.

Organic

(as in organic disease) - relating to the organs of the body, specifically to basic changes in them brought about by physical disorders

Pars Interarticularis

part of the vertebral body

Progressive Neurological Deficits

worsening symptoms like losing your ability to lift your foot to walk or grip a hairbrush

Pseudo

“false” - as in pseudospondylolisthesis meaning false spondylolisthesis because pseudospondylolisthesis does not have a fracture of the pars like spondylolisthesis does, yet it has similar symptomatology.

Radiculitis

inflammation of a portion of the spinal nerve root resulting in pain that travels along the nerve's path in the body from the spinal cord.

Radicular Pain

pain that radiates down an extremity (arm or leg) along a specific nerve path

Retrolisthesis

the backward slippage of one vertebra onto the vertebra immediately below

Ruptured Disc

same as herniated disc, bulging disc, slipped disc - a condition in which the inner part of the intervertebral disc called the nucleus pulposus pushes through the outer containing fibers of the disc called the annulus fibrosus. This bulging of the inner nucleus into the annulus fibrosus can take two forms. If the nucleus is held within the annulus fibrosus, the process is termed a contained disc, and sometimes referred to as a disc protrusion or herniation. If the annulus fibrosus tears and allows the inner nucleus pulposus to escape through the annulus fibrosus it is called a non-contained disc herniation and often called a ruptured or fragmented disc.

Sciatica

disturbing leg pain that starts in the low back and travels the course of an irritated nerve. It may extend down one or both legs. 

Scleratogenous Pain

low back, buttock, and thigh pain that could be due to herniation, degenerative disc disease, spinal arthritis, sacroiliac joint, stenosis due to spinal arthritis due to degenerative disc disease

Slipped Disc

same as herniated disc, bulging disc, ruptured disc - a condition in which the inner part of the intervertebral disc called the nucleus pulposus pushes through the outer containing fibers of the disc called the annulus fibrosus. This bulging of the inner nucleus into the annulus fibrosus can take two forms. If the nucleus is held within the annulus fibrosus, the process is termed a contained disc, and sometimes referred to as a disc protrusion or herniation. If the annulus fibrosus tears and allows the inner nucleus pulposus to escape through the annulus fibrosus it is called a non-contained disc herniation and often called a ruptured or fragmented disc.

Spinal Stenosis

abnormal narrowing of the internal diameter of the vertebral spinal canal, nerve root canal or intervertebral foramen; this may result in spinal cord or nerve root compression.

Subluxation

the misalignment of one or more spinal vertebrae 

Symptomatology

a group of symptoms that, when considered together, lead to a diagnosis of body pain

Thoracic

the middle segment of the spinal column that attaches to the rib cage and protects the organs there

Thoracic outlet syndrome

a group of disorders that occur when blood vessels or nerves in the thoracic outlet -- the space between your collarbone and your first rib -- are compressed Vertebra / vertebrae - the bone(s) of the spinal column

Vertebral Body

the circular part of the spinal column bones that the disc sits between.

Whiplash injuries

quick flexion-extension forced movements that stress the cervical spine and cause pain

Ligamentum Flava

The ligamentum flava are the ligaments (aka yellow ligaments) that connect from the axis of the spine (in the neck at level C2) to the sacrum of the spine (the lowest part of the spine at level S1). It is quite elastic and remains taut throughout the spine as it connects from one vertebral bone's facet capsule to another.

Occipitalization

Occipitalization is the assimilation of the atlas vertebra to the occiput, resulting in a person's cervical spine not having a C1 (first cervical spine) vertebral (bone) segment.

Nociceptive

caused by pain; reaction to painful stimulus

Intermittent Claudication

Pain feeling like a cramp and weakness in the legs and especially the calves when walking that disappears after resting a bit; usually associated with inadequate blood supply to the muscles

Nervous System

the body's system of organs - brain, spinal cord, nerves, etc. - that receives and sends signals throughout the body via neurons

Diagnosis

the identification of the nature and cause of back pain based on subjective (information from you) and objective (information from physical tests and your body's response to them as well as imaging studies if available) findings

Chronic Pain

pain that extends beyond the expected time for relief summarizes "chronic", but it is defined differently in the medical literature from 6 weeks or 12 weeks or 3 months. It is commonly held to be pain that lasts longer than 90 days (3 months).

Degenerative

getting steadily worse over time

Evidence based medicine

is the application of the best healing protocols for specific medical conditions according to scientifically sound research outcomes from published reports ranging from meta-analyses and randomized control trials to conventional wisdom, balancing the risks and benefits of the treatment for the patient, in order to improve a patient's quality of life
 
Cox Technic is a chiropractic procedure with conventional wisdom, clinical case reports, randomized control trials and on-going federally funded research documenting the clinical and biomechanical effects of Cox Technic for spine pain patients.

Ligamentum flavum

Ligamentum flavum connects the back of one vertebral bone to the vertebra adjacent to it. The ligamentum flava are the series of elastic bands that run throughout the spine from the cervical spine segment C2 to the sacrum segment S1, keeping us upright. The ligamentum flavum is quite elastic and remains taut throughout the spine as it connects from one vertebral bone's facet capsule and lamina to another.

Cervical spine ligamentum flava are thin, thoracic are thicker, and lumbar are thickest.  

Ligamentum flava fill in the spinal canal arc inside the vertebral bodies of the spinal column. (See the white arrows on the image to the left.)

These bands may become abnormally thickened, causing pain due to a condition known as ligamentum flavum hypertrophy.

 
 
 

Ligamentum Flavum Hypertrophy

ligamentum flavum hypertrophy

Ligamentum flavum hypertrophy (thickening) is a degenerative spinal condition often occurring in the elderly as a result of stresses placed upon it due to aging changes in the spine such as disc degeneration and disc herniation and joint arthritis. It causes the spinal canal to narrow which results in spinal nerve compression and irritation. Since the ligamentum flavum lies in the back part of the spinal vertebral canal, it fills the vertebral canal behind the vertebral body.

   
 
 
 
 

Spinal Manipulation

Spinal manipulation, often referred to by chiropractors as spinal adjusting, is the manual movement of the spinal vertebra to restore normal range of motion, relieve nerve compression and irritation, relieve pain, and restore a state of well-being to the patient. 
 
 Cox Technic Spinal Manipulation
A special form of spinal manipulation known as Cox Technic Flexion Distraction and Decompression Adjusting lists five changes in the spine under its application:
  1. Increase of the disc space height
  2. Increase of the nerve opening sizes in the spine through which spinal nerves pass from the spinal cord to the body by up to 28% in area
  3. Intradiscal pressure reduction which reduces nerve irritation inside the disc and reduces nerve pressure on exiting nerves from the spine that cause arm and leg pain. This drop in pressure has been measured as high as 192 mm reduced pressure inside the intervertebral disc.
  4. Restore normal range of motion to the joints of the spine
  5. Establish nerve conduction from the extremities, spinal joints and intervertebral discs to the spinal cord and brain that have a sedating and pain relieving capability

Contact Hutter Chiropractic Office for your examination and spinal manipulation treatment plan.

"This information and website content is not intended to diagnose, guarantee results, or recommend specific treatment or activity. It is designed to educate and inform only. Please consult your physician for a thorough examination leading to a diagnosis and well-planned treatment strategy. See more details on the DISCLAIMER page."